|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
|INCOME TAXES||INCOME TAXES
Our effective tax rate decreased to 21.0% in the third quarter from 22.2% in the same period of 2021 (21.8% year to date compared to 22.4% in 2021). The recognition in income tax of excess tax benefits related to share-based compensation reduced our effective rate by 0.8% year to date compared to 0.6% in the same period of 2021 (there was no significant impact in the third quarter of 2022 or 2021). Other items that impacted our effective tax rate in the third quarter compared to 2021 included favorable changes in uncertain tax positions and favorable changes in our jurisdictional earnings mix.
As discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, we have recognized liabilities for uncertain tax positions and we reevaluate these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. A number of years may elapse before an uncertain tax position is audited and ultimately settled. It is difficult to predict the ultimate outcome or the timing of resolution for uncertain tax positions. It is reasonably possible that the amount of unrecognized tax benefits could significantly increase or decrease within the next twelve months, however, an estimate of the range of reasonably possible outcomes cannot be made. Items that may cause changes to unrecognized tax benefits include the allowance or disallowance of deductions, the timing of deductions and the allocation of income and expense between tax jurisdictions. Any changes could result from the settlement of ongoing litigation, the completion of ongoing examinations, the expiration of statutes of limitations or other unforeseen circumstances.
In the first nine months of 2022, we recognized an immaterial income tax expense related to a pre-tax curtailment gain of $33 million on the UPS Canada Ltd. Retirement Plan. This income tax expense was generated at a higher average tax rate than the U.S. federal statutory tax rate because it included the effect of foreign taxes.
In the first nine months of 2021, we recognized an income tax expense of $788 million related to a pre-tax mark-to-market gain of $3.3 billion on the UPS/IBT Full-Time Employee Pension Plan. This income tax expense was generated at a higher average tax rate than the U.S. federal statutory tax rate because it included the effect of U.S. state and local taxes.
As discussed in note 17, we recognized pre-tax transformation strategy costs of $36 million in the third quarter of 2022 compared to $74 million in the same period of 2021 ($132 million year to date compared to $308 million in the prior year). As a result, we recorded an income tax benefit of $9 million in the third quarter compared to $20 million in the same period of 2021 ($31 million year to date compared to $76 million in the prior year). The income tax benefit was generated at a higher average tax rate than the U.S. federal statutory tax rate, primarily due to the effect of U.S. state and local taxes and foreign taxes.
During the first nine months of 2021, we recorded a net pre-tax gain of $35 million related to the divestiture of UPS Freight, resulting in a net income tax expense of $8 million. This income tax expense was generated at a higher average tax rate than the U.S. federal statutory tax rate due to the effect of U.S. state and local taxes.
Beginning in 2012, we were granted a tax incentive for certain of our non-U.S. operations, which was effective through December 31, 2021. During the first nine months of 2022, the tax incentive was renegotiated and extended. The tax incentive is conditioned upon our meeting specific employment and investment thresholds, which we expect to meet. The impact of the tax incentive did not significantly change our effective tax rate for the first nine months of 2022 compared to 2021.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef