|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]|
|REVENUE RECOGNITION||REVENUE RECOGNITION
Substantially all of our revenues are from contracts associated with the pickup, transportation and delivery of packages and freight ("transportation services"). These services may be carried out by or arranged by us and generally occur over a short period of time. Additionally, we provide value-added logistics services to customers through our global network of company-owned and leased distribution centers and field stocking locations.
Disaggregation of Revenue
We account for a contract when both parties have approved the contract and are committed to perform their obligations, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the basis of revenue recognition. The vast majority of our contracts with customers are for transportation services that include only one performance obligation; the transportation services themselves. If a contract contains more than one performance obligation, we allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the services underlying each performance obligation.
In certain business units, such as Logistics, we sell customized, customer-specific solutions in which we integrate a complex set of tasks and components into a single capability that is accounted for as one performance obligation.
Satisfaction of Performance Obligations
We generally recognize revenue over time as we perform services in the contract because our customers receive the benefit of our services as goods are transported from one location to another. Further, if we were unable to complete delivery to the final location, those services would not need to be re-performed.
We recognize revenue based on the extent of progress towards completion of our services. We use the cost-to-cost measure of progress for our package delivery contracts because it best depicts the benefit received by the customer, which occurs as we incur costs on our contracts. Under this measure, the extent of progress towards completion is measured based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to the total estimated costs at completion of the service. Revenues, including ancillary or accessorial fees and reductions for estimated customer incentives, are recorded proportionally as costs are incurred. Costs to fulfill include labor and other direct costs and an allocation of indirect costs.
For our freight forwarding contracts, an output method of progress based on time-in-transit is utilized as the timing of costs incurred does not best depict the benefit to the customer. In our Logistics business we have a right to consideration from customers in an amount that corresponds directly with the value to the customers of our performance completed to date; therefore we recognize revenue in the amount to which we have a right to invoice the customer.
Our contracts commonly contain customer incentives, guaranteed service refunds or other provisions that can either increase or decrease the rates paid for services. These variable amounts are generally dependent upon achievement of certain incentive tiers or performance metrics. We record revenue, which may be reduced by incentives or other contract provisions, to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative amounts recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved. Our estimates of revenue are based on an assessment of anticipated customer spending and all information (historical, current and forecasted) that is reasonably available to us.
Contracts are often modified to account for changes in the rates we charge our customers or to add additional, distinct services. We consider contract modifications to exist when the modification either creates new, or changes the existing, enforceable rights and obligations. Contract modifications that add distinct goods or services are treated as separate contracts. Contract modifications that do not add distinct goods or services typically change the price of existing services. These contract modifications are accounted for prospectively as the remaining performance obligations are distinct.
Under the typical payment terms of our customer contracts, customers pay at periodic intervals, which are generally seven days within our U.S. Domestic Package business, for shipments included on invoices received. Invoices are generated each week on the week-ending day, which is Saturday for the majority of our U.S. Domestic Package business, but could be another day depending on the business unit or the specific agreement with the customer. It is not customary business practice to extend payment terms past 90 days, and as such, we do not have a practice of including a significant financing component within our contracts with customers.
Principal vs. Agent Considerations
In our transportation businesses, we may utilize independent contractors and third-party carriers to perform transportation services. We have determined that all our major businesses act as principal rather than agent within their revenue arrangements. Consequently, revenue and the associated purchased transportation costs are reported on a gross basis within our statements of consolidated income.
Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts receivable, net, include amounts billed and currently due from customers. The amounts due are stated at their net estimated realizable value. Losses on accounts receivable are recognized when reasonable and supportable forecasts affect the expected collectability. This requires us to make our best estimate of the current expected losses inherent in our accounts receivable at each balance sheet date. These estimates require consideration of historical loss experience, adjusted for current conditions, forward-looking indicators, trends in customer payment frequency, and judgments about the probable effects of relevant observable data, including present and future economic conditions and the financial health of specific customers and market sectors. Our risk management process includes standards and policies for reviewing major account exposures and concentrations of risk.
We increased our allowance for expected credit losses by $18 million during 2022 based upon current forecasts that reflect changes in the economic outlook. Our allowance for credit losses as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $146 and $128 million, respectively. Amounts for credit losses charged to expense before recoveries during the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 were $214 and $175 million, respectively.
Contract Assets and Liabilities
Contract assets include billed and unbilled amounts resulting from in-transit shipments, as we have an unconditional right to payment only when services have been completed (i.e., shipments have been delivered). Amounts do not exceed their net realizable value. Contract assets are generally classified as current and the full balance is converted each quarter based on the short-term nature of the transactions.
Contract liabilities consist of advance payments and billings in excess of revenue as well as deferred revenue. Advance payments and billings in excess of revenue represent payments received from our customers that will be earned over the contract term. Deferred revenue represents the amount due from customers related to in-transit shipments that has not yet been recognized as revenue based on our selected measure of progress. We classify advance payments and billings in excess of revenue as either current or long-term, depending on the period over which the amount will be earned. We classify deferred revenue as current based on the short-term nature of the transactions. Our contract assets and liabilities are reported in a net position on a contract-by-contract basis at the end of each reporting period. In order to determine revenue recognized in the period from contract liabilities, we first allocate revenue to the individual contract liability balance outstanding at the beginning of the period until the revenue exceeds that deferred revenue balance.
Contract assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 were as follows (in millions):
The entire disclosure of revenue from contract with customer to transfer good or service and to transfer nonfinancial asset. Includes, but is not limited to, disaggregation of revenue, credit loss recognized from contract with customer, judgment and change in judgment related to contract with customer, and asset recognized from cost incurred to obtain or fulfill contract with customer. Excludes insurance and lease contracts.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef