GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Business Combinations [Abstract]|
|GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS||
GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS
The following table indicates the allocation of goodwill by segment (in millions):
2018 Goodwill Activity
The change in goodwill for both the Supply Chain & Freight and the International Package segments was due to immaterial purchase accounting adjustments and the impact of changes in the value of the U.S. Dollar on the translation of non-U.S. Dollar goodwill balances.
2017 Goodwill Activity
The goodwill acquired in the Supply Chain & Freight segment is primarily related to our January 2017 acquisition of Freightex Ltd. ("Freightex") and our November 2017 acquisition of STTAS Global Holdings, Inc ("Sandler & Travis Trade Advisory Services" or "STTAS"). The remaining goodwill acquired in the Supply Chain & Freight segment was related to other, smaller acquisitions immaterial to our consolidated financial position or results of operations.
The goodwill acquired in the International Package segment is related to our June 2017 acquisition of Eirpost Group Unlimited Company ("Nightline").
The remaining change in goodwill for both the Supply Chain & Freight and the International Package segments was due to immaterial purchase accounting adjustments and the impact of changes in the value of the U.S. Dollar on the translation of non-U.S. Dollar goodwill balances.
We completed our annual goodwill impairment valuation, as of July 1st, on a reporting unit basis. For the periods presented, no triggering events were identified that required an interim impairment test.
U.S. Domestic Package is our largest reporting segment. In our International Package reporting segment, we have the following reporting units: Europe, Asia, Americas and ISMEA (Indian Subcontinent, Middle East and Africa). In our Supply Chain & Freight segment we have the following reporting units: Forwarding, Logistics, UPS Mail Innovations, UPS Freight, The UPS Store, UPS Capital, Marken and Coyote.
In assessing our goodwill for impairment, we initially evaluate qualitative factors to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the qualitative assessment is not conclusive and it is necessary to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit, then we utilize a two-step process to test goodwill for impairment. First, a comparison of the fair value of the applicable reporting unit with the aggregate carrying value, including goodwill, is performed. We primarily determine the fair value of our reporting units using a discounted cash flow model, and supplement this with observable valuation multiples for comparable companies, as applicable. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, we perform the second step of the goodwill impairment test to determine the amount of impairment loss. The second step includes comparing the implied fair value of the affected reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying value of that goodwill.
In 2018, we utilized a qualitative assessment to determine that it was more likely than not that the reporting unit fair value exceeded the carrying value for our U.S. Domestic Package, Europe Package, Asia Package, Americas Package, ISMEA Package, Forwarding, Logistics, UPS Mail Innovations, The UPS Store and UPS Capital reporting units. For the remaining reporting units owned at the annual goodwill impairment testing date, we utilized the two-step process to test goodwill for impairment. We did not have any goodwill impairment charges in 2018, 2017 or 2016. Cumulatively, our Supply Chain & Freight segment has recorded $622 million of goodwill impairment charges, while our International and U.S. Domestic Package segments have not recorded any goodwill impairment charges.
The following is a summary of intangible assets at December 31, 2018 and 2017 (in millions):
A trade name and licenses with a carrying value of $200 and $5 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2018 are deemed to be indefinite-lived intangible assets, and therefore are not amortized. Impairment tests for indefinite-lived intangible assets are performed on an annual basis. All of our other recorded intangible assets are deemed to be finite-lived intangibles, and are thus amortized over their estimated useful lives. Impairment tests for these intangible assets are only performed when a triggering event occurs that may indicate that the carrying value of the intangible may not be recoverable. There was a $12 and $7 million impairment of finite-lived intangible assets in 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Amortization of intangible assets was $339, $287 and $321 million during 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Expected amortization of finite-lived intangible assets recorded as of December 31, 2018 for the next five years is as follows (in millions): 2019—$432; 2020—$380; 2021—$312; 2022—$249; 2023—$199. Amortization expense in future periods will be affected by business acquisitions, software development, licensing agreements, franchise rights purchases and other factors.
The entire disclosure for goodwill and intangible assets.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef