CASH AND INVESTMENTS
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Investments and Cash [Abstract]|
|CASH AND INVESTMENTS||
INVESTMENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH
The following is a summary of marketable securities classified as trading and available-for-sale at December 31, 2018 and 2017 (in millions):
Total current marketable securities that were pledged as collateral for our self-insurance requirements had an estimated fair value of $587 and $579 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
There were no gross realized gains on sales of available-for-sale securities in 2018 or 2017. Gross realized gains on sales of available-for-sale securities totaled $1 million in 2016. The gross realized losses on sales of available-for-sale securities totaled $4, $2 and $1 million in 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
There were no material impairment losses recognized on marketable securities during 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Investment Other-Than-Temporary Impairments
We have concluded that no material other-than-temporary impairment losses existed as of December 31, 2018. In making this determination, we considered the financial condition and prospects of the issuer, the magnitude of the losses compared with the investments’ cost, the probability that we will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the security, the credit rating of the security and our ability and intent to hold these investments until the anticipated recovery in market value occurs.
The following table presents the age of gross unrealized losses and fair value by investment category for all securities in a loss position as of December 31, 2018 (in millions):
The unrealized losses for the corporate debt securities, mortgage and asset-backed debt securities and U.S. government and agency debt securities are primarily due to changes in market interest rates. We have both the intent and ability to hold the securities contained in the previous table for a time necessary to recover the cost basis.
The amortized cost and estimated fair value of marketable securities at December 31, 2018, by contractual maturity, are shown below (in millions). Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because the issuers of the securities may have the right to prepay obligations without prepayment penalties.
Non-Current Investments and Restricted Cash
Investments and Restricted Cash are primarily associated with our self-insurance requirements. We entered into an escrow agreement with an insurance carrier to guarantee our self-insurance obligations. This agreement requires us to provide collateral to the insurance carrier, which is invested in money market funds and corporate and municipal bonds. Collateral provided is reflected in "Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash" in the statements of consolidated cash flows. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had $142 and $449 million in self-insurance investments and restricted cash, respectively.
We held a $19 million investment in a variable life insurance policy to fund benefits for the UPS Excess Coordinating Benefit Plan at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The quarterly change in investment fair value is recognized in "Investment income (expense) and other" on the statements of consolidated income. Additionally, we held escrowed cash related to the acquisition and disposition of certain assets, primarily real estate, of $9 and $15 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The amounts described above are classified as “Non-current Investments and Restricted Cash” in the consolidated balance sheets.
A reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash from the consolidated balance sheets to the statements of consolidated cash flows in shown below (in millions):
Fair Value Measurements
Marketable securities utilizing Level 1 inputs include active exchange-traded equity securities and equity index funds, and most U.S. Government debt securities, as these securities all have quoted prices in active markets. Marketable securities utilizing Level 2 inputs include asset-backed securities, corporate bonds and municipal bonds. These securities are valued using market corroborated pricing, matrix pricing or other models that utilize observable inputs such as yield curves.
We maintain holdings in certain investment partnerships that are measured at fair value utilizing Level 3 inputs (classified as “other non-current investments” in the tables below, and as “other non-current assets” in the consolidated balance sheets). These partnership holdings do not have quoted prices, nor can they be valued using inputs based on observable market data. These investments are valued internally using a discounted cash flow model with two significant inputs: (1) the after-tax cash flow projections for each partnership, and (2) a risk-adjusted discount rate consistent with the duration of the expected cash flows for each partnership. The weighted-average discount rates used to value these investments were 8.16% and 7.56% as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. These inputs and the resulting fair values are updated on a quarterly basis.
The following table presents information about our investments measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation techniques utilized to determine such fair value (in millions):
There were no transfers of investments between Level 1 and Level 2 during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.