|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2023
|Share-Based Payment Arrangement [Abstract]|
|STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION||STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
We issue share-based awards under various incentive compensation plans, including non-qualified and incentive stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock and stock units ("RSUs") and restricted performance shares and performance units ("RPUs", collectively with RSUs, "Restricted Units"). Upon vesting, Restricted Units result in the issuance of the equivalent number of UPS class A common shares after required tax withholdings. Dividends accrued on Restricted Units are reinvested in additional Restricted Units at each dividend payable date and are subject to the same vesting and forfeiture conditions as the underlying Restricted Units.
Our primary equity compensation programs are the UPS Long-Term Incentive Performance Program (the "LTIP") and the UPS Stock Option program. We also maintain an employee stock purchase plan which allows eligible employees to purchase shares of UPS class A common stock at a discount.
On November 2, 2022, we amended and restated the terms and conditions of the UPS Management Incentive Program (the "MIP") effective January 1, 2023, to provide that awards under the MIP will be fully electable in the form of cash or unrestricted shares of class A common stock.
Pre-tax compensation expense for share-based awards recognized in Compensation and benefits in the statements of consolidated income for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 was $21 and $233 million, respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 was $186 and $850 million, respectively.
Management Incentive Program
RPUs issued under the MIP prior to 2022 vested one year following the grant date subject to continued employment with the Company and were expensed on a straight-line basis (less estimated forfeitures) over the requisite service period. In cases of death, disability or retirement, RPUs vested and were expensed immediately.
RPUs issued under the MIP in 2022 vested on December 31, 2022. As a result, the award was classified as a compensation obligation and recorded in Accrued wages and withholdings on the consolidated balance sheet at that date. Based on the date of the Compensation and Human Capital Committee of the UPS Board of Directors (the "Compensation Committee") approval of the 2022 MIP, we determined the award measurement date to be February 8, 2023 for U.S.-based employees, including executive management, and March 20, 2023 for international employees. Each RPU issued under the MIP was valued using the closing New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") prices of $186.36 and $183.49 on those dates. The compensation obligation recognized as of December 31, 2022 was relieved and the issuance of RPUs was recorded as additional paid-in capital on the measurement date.
Long-Term Incentive Performance Program
RPUs issued under the LTIP vest at the end of a three-year performance period, subject to continued employment with the Company (except in the case of death, disability or retirement, in which case immediate vesting occurs on a prorated basis). The actual number of RPUs earned is based on achievement of the performance targets established on the grant date.
The performance targets are equally weighted between adjusted earnings per share and cumulative free cash flow. The actual number of RPUs earned is subject to adjustment based on total shareholder return relative to the Standard & Poor's 500 Index ("S&P 500"). We determine the grant date fair value of the RPUs using a Monte Carlo model and recognize compensation expense (less estimated forfeitures) ratably over the vesting period, based on the number of awards expected to be earned.
Based on the date of the Compensation Committee's approval of the 2023 LTIP award performance targets, we determined March 22, 2023 to be the award measurement date and each target RPU awarded was valued at $200.01.
The weighted-average assumptions used and the weighted-average fair values of the LTIP awards granted in 2023 and 2022 are as follows:
There is no expected dividend yield as units earn dividend equivalents.
Non-Qualified Stock Options
We grant non-qualified stock options to a limited group of eligible senior management employees under the UPS Stock Option program. Stock option awards vest over a five-year period with approximately 20% of the award vesting at each anniversary of the grant date (except in the case of death, disability or retirement, in which case immediate vesting occurs). The option grants expire 10 years after the date of the grant. On March 22, 2023, we granted 0.1 million stock options at an exercise price of $185.54, the NYSE closing price on that date.
The fair value of each option granted is estimated using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. The weighted-average assumptions used and the weighted-average fair values of options granted in 2023 and 2022 are as follows:
The entire disclosure for share-based payment arrangement.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/exampleRef