INVESTMENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Marketable Securities [Abstract]|
|INVESTMENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH||
CASH AND INVESTMENTS
The following is a summary of marketable securities classified as trading and available-for-sale as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 (in millions):
Investment Other-Than-Temporary Impairments
We have concluded that no material other-than-temporary impairment losses existed as of September 30, 2018. In making this determination, we considered the financial condition and prospects of the issuer, the magnitude of the losses compared with the investments’ cost, the probability that we will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the security, the credit rating of the security and our ability and intent to hold these investments until the anticipated recovery in market value occurs.
The amortized cost and estimated fair value of marketable securities at September 30, 2018, by contractual maturity, are shown below (in millions). Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because the issuers of the securities may have the right to prepay obligations without prepayment penalties.
Non-Current Investments and Restricted Cash
Non-current investments and restricted cash is primarily associated with our self-insurance programs. We entered into an escrow agreement with an insurance carrier to guarantee our self-insurance obligations. This agreement requires us to provide collateral to the insurance carrier, which is invested in various marketable securities and cash equivalents. Collateral provided is reflected in "Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash" in the statements of consolidated cash flows. At September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, we had $278 and $449 million in self-insurance investments and restricted cash, respectively.
We held a $19 million investment in a variable life insurance policy to fund benefits for the UPS Excess Coordinating Benefit Plan at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The quarterly change in investment fair value is recognized in "Investment income and other" on the statements of consolidated income. Additionally, we held escrowed cash related to the acquisition and disposition of certain assets, primarily real estate, of $9 and $15 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
The amounts described above are classified as “Non-Current Investments and Restricted Cash” in the consolidated balance sheets.
A reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash from the consolidated balance sheets to the statements of consolidated cash flows is shown below (in millions):
Fair Value Measurements
Marketable securities valued utilizing Level 1 inputs include active exchange-traded equity securities and equity index funds, and most U.S. government debt securities, as these securities all have quoted prices in active markets. Marketable securities valued utilizing Level 2 inputs include asset-backed securities, corporate bonds and municipal bonds. These securities are valued using market corroborated pricing, matrix pricing or other models that utilize observable inputs such as yield curves.
We maintain holdings in certain investment partnerships that are measured at fair value utilizing Level 3 inputs (classified as “Other non-current investments” in the tables below, and as “Other Non-Current Assets” in the consolidated balance sheets). These partnership holdings do not have quoted prices, nor can they be valued using inputs based on observable market data. These investments are valued internally using a discounted cash flow model with two significant inputs: (1) the after-tax cash flow projections for each partnership, and (2) a risk-adjusted discount rate consistent with the duration of the expected cash flows for each partnership. The weighted-average discount rates used to value these investments were 8.14% and 7.56% as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. These inputs, and the resulting fair values, are updated on a quarterly basis. The level 3 instruments measured on a recurring basis totaled $2 and $6 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
The following table presents information about our investments measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation techniques utilized to determine such fair value (in millions):